Back to the future: origins and directions of the “Agile Manifesto” – views of the originators


  • Philipp Hohl Daimler AG
  • Jil Klünder Leibniz Universität Hannover
  • Arie van Bennekum Wemanity
  • Ryan Lockard Contino
  • James Gifford Lean Agile Intelligence
  • Jürgen Münch Reutlingen University
  • Michael Stupperich Daimler AG
  • Kurt Schneider Leibniz Universität Hannover, Welfengarten 1, Hanover, 30167, Germany


Manifesto for agile software development, Agile manifesto, Agile methods, Interview review


In 2001, seventeen professionals set up the manifesto for agile software development. They wanted to define values and basic principles for better software development. On top of being brought into focus, the manifesto has been widely adopted by developers, in software-developing organizations and outside the world of IT. Agile principles and their implementation in practice have paved the way for radical new and innovative ways of software and product development. In parallel, the understanding of the manifesto’s underlying principles evolved over time. This, in turn, may affect current and future applications of agile principles. This article presents results from a survey and an interview study in collaboration with the original contributors of the manifesto for agile software development. Furthermore, it comprises the results from a workshop with one of the original authors. This publication focuses on the origins of the manifesto, the contributors’ views from today’s perspective, and their outlook on future directions. We evaluated 11 responses from the survey and 14 interviews to understand the viewpoint of the contributors. They emphasize that agile methods need to be carefully selected and agile should not be seen as a silver bullet. They underline the importance of considering the variety of different practices and methods that had an influence on the manifesto. Furthermore, they mention that people should question their current understanding of “agile” and recommend reconsidering the core ideas of the manifesto.

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How to Cite

Hohl, P., Klünder, J., van Bennekum, A., Lockard, R., Gifford, J., Münch, J., Stupperich, M., & Schneider, K. (2018). Back to the future: origins and directions of the “Agile Manifesto” – views of the originators. Journal of Software Engineering Research and Development, 6, 15:1 – 15:27. Retrieved from



Research Article